Bien-être et ITT
- Environmental well-being, quality of life and land-sensitive relationships. Improving landscape integration and understanding the living environment to improve the social approval of large land-transport infrastructure.
Environmental well-being, quality of life and land-sensitive relationships. Improving landscape integration and understanding the living environment to improve the social approval of large land-transport infrastructure.
If efforts have been made in recent years to capture the landscape and sensitive population reports to large equipment called structuring (eg wind turbines) and / or the territories in which they fit, the major land transport infrastructure (ITT) of long distance are still very little studied from a specifically qualitative angle, which is more under that of well-being and quality of life, two notions that make a remarkable comeback both in the academic world and in the field of action. territorial. There remains, therefore, a demand to take into account the prevailing landscape sensitivities and the well-being provided in the context of such ITT projects, and thus the qualification of other reference territories, than those institutionally defined.
In addition, from a more operational point of view, human environments are often poorly studied in environmental studies, which represents a growing gap. The perceptions that residents have about their living environment are not rigorously observed in environmental studies. However, they are one of the sociological levers for understanding the "acceptability" of a project and its development.
At the crossroads of these two findings, this work then generally aims to better understand what feels environmental well-being and representations of the quality of life in these new conditions that constitute, for social membership and territorial integration large facilities, landscapes as vectors of other territorial meanings: phenomenological, symbolic, aesthetic, axiological ... In particular, these feelings of environmental well-being and these representations of the quality of life are analyzed from the angle:
- atmospheres carried by such landscapes, representations attached to them, sensitive relationships tied to places of life (visual, sound, olfactory ...);
- and their values, principles and challenges for social inclusion, also in terms of people's expectations in this area.
This research focuses on three selected sites on two projects, leaving the possibility of drawing from different landscape sensitivities and involving landscapes considered ordinary or more remarkable (official categories, or classification of operators / AMO, such as SETEC):
a) The high-speed line between Belfort and Mulhouse (called section C of the Rhine Rhône-Alpes high-speed line) is the first phase, which was commissioned in December 2011.
b) The Bordeaux-Toulouse High Speed Line (integrated into the GPSO program), for which the Avant-Projet Sommaire studies were carried out, and, in this context, dedicated dedicated consultations (eg inter-expert thematic workshops with elected representatives and associative representatives).
In the end, this work gives rise to:
- an acquired state of the art of scientific knowledge and limits relating to often dissociated approaches to environmental well-being, landscape representations and sensitive feelings, all under the aegis of geographical, psychological (cognitive and social), landscape / aesthetic reflections and policies first and foremost on well-being and landscapes. This state of the art makes it possible, by the lighting of several notions (not only well-being and quality of life, but also landscape, environment, atmosphere, sensitive and aesthetic, place and territory ...), to refine the questioning and hypothesis play on their material and social forms, their construction, the relationships of belonging and anchoring that support them;
- an analysis of the speeches of the inhabitants (3 focus groups), organized around two main families of collection: the state, the level and especially the determining factors of the well-being and the quality of local life (territory, environment, landscapes) ; concrete issues relating to the landscape integration of projects (layout, design of structures and models, plantations, aesthetics, compensation ...), their "social membership", and instead of the resident positions in it. From these two families of empirical results arise several types of data, lists and analysis of typified facts: on the landscapes and atmospheres defended by the inhabitants, on their tangible and intangible compositions, on the expectations that may arise from them, on the criteria for membership or opposition to projects, their approaches, portages and productions of geographical sense ...;
- at the end of a seminar between actors and researchers, a summary note (in the form of documentaries for the general public) drawn from dialogues and exchanges on negotiated methodological recommendations, in terms of landscape tools, in particular to take into account more operational way, feeling (eg ambiances), representations (eg of the quality of life), opinions / attitudes (eg in relation to the landscaped stakes borne by the projects) of the populations related to well-being in the projects Study but also from then on, to think about the mechanisms (partnerships, participative ...) and actions (sensitization of the populations, territorial compensations, democratization of the knowledge ...) dedicated to the social adhesion to ITT.