By establishing a parallel between the American national parks and the natural space formed by the territories crossed by linear transport infrastructures (ILTe), the IPAVIA project sets itself the objective of studying the development of an observation network of the atmospheric visibility along ILTe which would opportunistically exploit data from sensor networks already present or likely to be in the near future. Given the complex relationships between atmospheric visibility, air quality and landscape, this observation network would be able to measure over time the impact of measures taken in all directions at the scale of the country or even the continent to reduce emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere, while constituting a local indicator of attractiveness for the territories crossed. Improving atmospheric visibility, in absolute terms or in terms of frequency of fog episodes, would constitute an aggregate indicator of the resilience of cities and territories in the face of anthropogenic and natural risks (loss of biodiversity, heat wave, global warming, forest fires, etc.). In short, it is about studying how atmospheric visibility integrates the elements of an ecosystem service to be protected and enhanced. The incubation period aims to build a research project capable of being selected by the ANR with the support of ITTECOP, which makes it possible to resolve the following three research hypotheses:
• H1: atmospheric visibility influences the attitude towards the landscapes crossed by ILTe;
• H2: sensors integrated into ILTe allow atmospheric visibility to be inferred;
• H3: Atmospheric visibility is an environmental service that can be better protected.
To achieve this, we plan to address the following four scientific challenges:
• Challenge #1: Determine the level of degradation of atmospheric visibility that can be inferred from sensors positioned on ILTe;
• Challenge #2: Estimate the degree of alteration of atmospheric visibility likely to affect the attitude of individuals towards landscapes;
• Challenge #3: propose a methodology to measure the socio-economic impact of an improvement in atmospheric visibility
• Challenge #4: Propose regulatory changes to protect long-term atmospheric visibility.
The IPAVIA project contributes a priori to the three axes of the APR 2020 of the ITTECOP program and aims to create an international multidisciplinary consortium on this subject little covered in the literature.