Ecological compensation in urban planning: genesis of a new instrument of public action
-  Ecological compensation in urban planning: genesis of a new instrument of public action
Thesis by Constance Berté under the direction of Olivier Coutard, LATTS (Laboratory techniques, territories and societies)
In terms of ecological compensation, the recent regulations on the sequence Avoid Reduce Compensation (ERC) invite to study the articulation between this legal-administrative arsenal, still in the process of definition and urban development. The beginning of the construction of a "market" around the implementation of the ERC sequence with the arrival of the compensation operators and the many strategic reflections of the developers on the internalization or not of the device deserve to be studied to understand both the design process and the implementation modalities of this policy instrument. This critical analysis of the construction of a politico-administrative system seems all the more important since the way in which the device is built will necessarily guide its results and the possibilities of setting up sustainable management. The construction of this device is also influenced by feedback from the field during its implementation and transactions between actors. This is why the study of actors and their practices is of particular importance. In this respect, a fieldwork based on interviews with the actors involved and / or confronted with the device will be conducted. The study of the application of the ERC sequence by building owners will allow to observe the forms taken by the compensation, the strategies developed by the actors concerned and the possible operational difficulties encountered. Interference and articulation between ecological, forestry and agricultural compensation will be mentioned.
The present research, which focuses on the land dimension of ecological compensation schemes, will focus more specifically on the construction of related markets, the instruments used in these markets, the processes for defining the value and putting land into circulation, the tools control and regulation developed by the public authorities. In fact, land remains the prerequisite for implementing ecological compensation "in kind". This land dimension will be analyzed both in the upstream phase of the design of the ERC sequence and in the downstream phase of its implementation. The definition of the value allocated to the compensation sites shows that land is taken into account from the beginning of the device. The ERC sequence also raises the question of land availability and the evolution of land strategies and policies - acquisition, portage, land management - of developers and landowners in favor of land anticipation or revaluation of their property. The evaluation by land entry of the development and application of the sequence ERC will finally identify the consequences it could have on the price of land, on the property regime and the planning of land use. So many questions that make the evaluation of this new public action system relevant.